Cancer in Women

1. Breast:- This is common form of Cancer among women in India. If detected early, it is curable. But if discovered late, breast cancer kills.

Who is likely to get breast cancer?
Some women are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer than others. Breast cancer is more common in women:

1. after the age of 25 and most often between ages 45 and 55
2. who have already had cancer in one breast
3. who have a close relative, mother or sister, who has had breast cancer
4. who have never been pregnant or who only had their first child after the ages of 30
5. who started having their menstrual periods at a young age, or who have a late menopause
6. who have certain types of breast disease

2. Cervix:- This is cancer affecting the cervix, which is the neck of the womb. It is the fourth most common cancer among Indian Women.

Who is likely to get cervical cancer ?
Older women are more likely to develop cervical cancer, especially after menopause. But, any woman can get cervical cancer.

Cervical cancer has been shown to be related to sexual bahaviour. Women who began having sexual intercourse at an early age or who have multiple partners have a greater risk of getting cervical cancer. In fact, sexually transmitted infections like genital herpes are linked to the development of cervical cancer.
Smoking will also put you at risk of getting cervical cancer.

Are there any warning signs ?
1. watch out for vaginal bleeding after sexual intercourse.
2. any irregular bleeding between menstrual periods or after menopause may be important too.
3. A cancer which becomes infected can give rise to a smelly vaginal discharge.
4. pain usually does not occur until very late, by which time the cancer has usually spread.

How can I check for cervical cancer ?
You can go for a Pap smear test. This is a quick, simple and painless test that can be done in an outpatient clinic.

A Pap smear test can detect cervical cancer at a very early stage, when it can be totally cured by simple treatment.

3. Ovary:- This also very common diseases in women. The ovaries contain the eggs that are released every month during a woman’s menstrual cycle. They also produce the female hormone oestrogen.

Cancer of the ovary is more common in women:
1. above 50 years old
2. who had menopause late
3. who have not had children
4. who have had cancers of the breast, uterus or colon (large intestine)
5. who have family members with cancers of the breast, uterus, colon or ovary

Are there any warning signs ?
Cancer of the ovary usually does not cause any problems until late, when the cancer has spread. Some signs that you should look out for are :
1. persistent loss of appetite or feeling of indigestion
2. pain in the abdomen
3. lump in the lower abdomen
4. increasing size of the abdomen

Having these signs may not mean that you have cancer, but you should see your doctor about them right way.

4. Uterus:- Cancer of the uterus (womb) is more common in women.

1. after menopause
2. who had menopause
3. who have never had children
4. who are on long-term treatment with hormone medicines Consult your doctor if you are over 40 years old and have irregular periods or abnormal bleeding from the vagina.
5. have reached menopause and have any bleeding or watery, smelly discharge from the vagina.



What is Chickenpox?
It is a viral disease caused by first exposure to the varicellazoster virus(VZV). The disease is identified with fever and can later get reactivated and cause shingles(herpes zoster).

What are the symptoms of chickenpox ?
Common symptoms are fever, chills, nausea and vomiting. The most obvious and the most well-known is the blistered and highly itchy rash. Most children have 200-300 lesions, which later form a crust or scab.


Immunization to Children

BCG - Birth or 6 weeks
OPV - Birth, 6 weeks, 10 weeks, 14 weeks, 9 months 15-18 months, 5 years.
DPT - 6 weeks, 10 weeks, 14 weeks, 15-18 months, 5 years.
Hepatitis B - Birth, 6 weeks, 6-9 months, 10 years.
Measles - 9 months
DT - 5 years
TT - 16 years

Some Common Diseases to Children:


Signs Age  
Fast breathing Upto 2 months age 60 times/min
  Upto2-12 months age 50 times/min
  12 months-5 years 40 times/min
Chest Indrawing    


1. Increased Thirst
2. Give more fluids than usual;
3. Restlessness, Irritability
4. Continue to feed the children
5. Decreased skin turgor
6. Take the child to a health facility centre  if the child is not
7. Dry mouth and tongue 
8. Tears absent
9. Sunken eyes

Fluids to Give:
1. Rice water
2. Soups
3. Yoghurt drinks
4. Water
5. Unsweetened juices

Fluids Therapy:

  Age  Volume of Fluids (ORS) after each stool
 <6 months    50 ml   ¼ gms
6 months upto 2 yrs   50-100 ml   ½ glass
2 yrs &  above 100-200 ml  1 glass

Prevention of Diarrhoea for Children:
1. Promote breast feeding, give exclusive breast feeding for first 4-6 months age.
2. Improve weaning practices, introduce semi solid foods at 4 month age.
3. Give enough foods with added oil. Give food Hyginically.
4. Thorough hand washing after defection, while cooking food and before feeding the children.
5. Use safe drink drinking water.
6. Always use Sanitary Latrine, make sure to cover the faces with mud if latrine not used.
7. Immunize the child with requisite vaccines.

Other Hygenic Prevents:
1. Keep food covered
2. Boil drinking water
3. Avoid water getting contaminated
4. Avoid using a feeding bottle. Unhygenic milk bottles are the greatest source of infection in small children.
5. Use a clean spoon for feeding a child with solids and semi-solids. Use a metal tumbler or cup for liquids.
6. Keep infants clean.
7. Keep the surroundings clean free from flies.
8. Use a Sanitary Latrine.

1. Tetanus: In the infants the infection is mainly caused by unhygienic cutting of the cord. Tetanus can be prevented if the mother is immunize against tetanus during pregnancy.

2. Whooping: The child has fever, cough and cold. Bouts of coughing are sosevere that the child has difficulty in breathing.

3. Diptheria: A thick white membrane blocks the air passage and can kill the child can kill by suffocation.

4. Polio: Polio may cause paralysis in any part of the body. Infection is through contaminated food and water. Polio leads to  disability. If the respiratory muscles are paralysed, the child may die.



1. Awareness about TB:-

a) TB is an infectious disease caused by a pathogen known as mycobacterium tuberculosis.

b) TB mainly affects the lungs; but it can also affect other parts of the body (Brain, Bones, Gland etc.)

c) T.B. is transmitted through air.

d) When an infected person cough out or sneeze out it releases the TB bacilli in the air in droplets forms and any body who inhale these droplets will be infected with TB and may develop this disease.

e) TB is 100% curable.

2. Preventive Measures:-

a) Smoking and alcohol should be avoid.

b) An infected person should cover his/her mouth when coughing or sneezing.

c) The sputum of TB patient should collected in a container contains phenyl and burns it as final disposal.

d) TB patients should not share dish, towel with others and should not mingle with children.


1. Persistent cough for 3 weeks or more.

2. Weight loss.

3. Chest pain.


5. Shortness of breath.

6. Loss of appetite

7. Fever, particularly with rise of temperature in the evening.

8. Coughing up blood (Haemoptysis).

9. Night sweats.


What Causes Asthma?

Asthma occurs in people with sensitive wind pipes which may be inherited from symptom-free relatives Cough - recurrent

1. More at night
2. Prolonged cough after cold
3. Crying, laughing, shouting, produce cough
4. Wheezing
5. Tightness in the chest
6. Breathlessness with exercise


What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which the body produces too little or ineffective insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to change food into the energy essential for life. When food is digested, it breaks down into a sugar called glucose, which is absorbed into the blood. In normal person, insulin helps the blood glucose to enter the body cells, to be used for energy.

In a diabetic person with too little or ineffective insulin, the glucose cannot enter the body cells. It builds up in the blood, giving rise to a high blood glucose level which is the main sign of untreated or uncontrolled diabetes.

Some people have certain factors that increase their risk of diabetes. This risk factors are:

Overweight: Diabetes is more common in people who are overweight.

Family history of diabetes: The risk of a person getting diabetes is increased if one parent is diabetic, and even higher if are diabetic.

Age: In India, diabetes commonly affects those over 40 years old.

Ethnic group: Diabetes is more common in Indians (9%) than in Malayasia (8%) or Chinese(4%).

Gender: Men are more likely to get diabetes (6% of men as compared to 4% of women).

There are two main types of Diabetes.

Type I (insulin-dependent) Diabetes:

This type of diabetes usually develops in young persons. The insulin-producing cells in the body are destroyed, and the body produces practically no insulin.

Type I diabetes can only be controlled with insulin replacement in the form of daily insulin injections, as well as proper diet and exercise.

The warning symptoms of type I diabetes include:

1. Nausea and vomiting.
2. Extreme thirst with frequent urination.
3. Extreme hunger with rapid weight loss.
4. Tiredness and irritability.

These symptoms usually occur suddenly. Prompt treatment is necessary. So see a doctor immediately.

Type II (non-insulin-dependent):

This type of diabetes usually develops in adults over the age of 40 years who are overweight. It is the most common type of diabetes in India. Insulin is produced by the body, but it may be decreased in amount or ineffective.

Type II diabetes can often be controlled with just proper diet and exercise. Sometimes, tablets are needed to stimulate production of more insulin, or to improve the action of ineffective insulin. In advanced cases, daily insulin injections are needed.

Persons with type II diabetes often have no warning symptoms, and only discover they have the disease when they have a routine blood test, or when they have a routine blood test, or when they develop complications.

1. Fungal infection and itching of the genital area.
2. Thirst with frequent urination.
3. Unexplained weight loss.
4. Blurred vision or a change in vision.
5. Numbness or tingling of hands or feet.
6. Slow healing of wounds.
7. Tiredness and irritability.


Presently, it is not possible to prevent type I diabetes. However, type II diabetes, which is often associated with overweight, may be prevented by :

Keeping to the desirable body weight for your height

Excess fat prevents insulin from working properly.

Eating a balance Diet

Take the correct number of servings from each of the 3 basic food groups for your age and level of activity. Avoid too much sugar, salt, fat and high-cholesterol food.

Exercising Regularly

This uses up blood glucose and body fat, improves blood circulation and strengthens the heart.


What is Stress?

Stress is a part of life. Stress happens to everyone everyday as we cope with ordinary events, interact with people and meet all kinds of demands.

Everyday things such as rules, work, responsibility, decisions, changes, relationships, illness and money can cause stress. A little stress is good. It makes you think and try harder. It stimulates and provides excitement. The stress of competitive sports, for example, is enjoyable for most people.

But too much stress that goes on for a long time can become harmful.

How stress affects Health?

Stress affects everyone differently. Some people become anxious or defensive, others become depressed or withdrawn. Yet others become aggressive or excited. Stress can also give rise to:

1. first heartbeats
2. tense muscles
3. headaches, stomach aches and diarrhoea
4. being anxious and bed tempered all the time
5. acting in a defensive or aggressive manner
6. feeling tired and having trouble concentrating
7. eating disorders – loss of appetite or overeating
8. sleeplessness (insomnia)
9. migraine
10. stomach ulcers
11. skin rashes.


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